Tags: openshift, security, containers

Demo: namespaced systemd workloads on OpenShift

I have spent much of the last year diving deep into OpenShift’s container runtime. The goal: work out how to run systemd-based workloads in user namespaces on OpenShift nodes. The exploration took many twists and turns. But finally, I have achieved the goal.

In this post I recap the journey so far, and demonstrate what I have achieved. Then I will summarise the path(s?) forward from here.

The journey so far §

My previous post gives an overview of the FreeIPA on OpenShift project. In particular, it explains our decision to use a “monolithic” systemd-based container. That implementation approach exposed capability gaps in OpenShift and led to a long running series of investigations. I wrote up the results of these investigations across several blog posts, summarised here:

OpenShift and user namespaces §

I observed that OpenShift (4.6 at the time) did not isolate containers in user namespaces. I noted that KEP-127 proposes user namespace support for Kubernetes (it is still being worked on). CRI-O had also recently added support for user namespaces via annotations.

User namespaces in OpenShift via CRI-O annotations §

I tested CRI-O’s annotation-based user namespace support on OpenShift 4.7 nightlies. I found that the runtime creates a sandbox with a user namespace and the expected UID mappings. I also found that it is necessary to override the net.ipv4.ping_group_range sysctl. Also, the SCC enforcement machinery does not know about user namespaces and therefore the account that creates the container requires the anyuid SCC. These deficiencies still exist today.

User namespace support in OpenShift 4.7 §

I continued my investigation after the release of OpenShift 4.7. With the aforementioned caveats, user namespaces work. I also noted an inconsistent treatment of securityContext: specifying runAsUser in the PodSpec maps the container’s UID 0 to host UID 0—a dangerous configuration.

More recently, I noticed that the userns-mode annotation I was using included map-to-root=true. I now understand that it is this configuration that causes this mapping behaviour. I no longer consider it particularly serious. Ideally the SCC enforcement should learn about user namespaces, and prevent unprivileged users from creating containers that run as root (or other system accounts) on the host.

Multiple users in user namespaces on OpenShift §

I verified that workloads that run processes under a variety of user accounts work as expected in user namespaces. I did not use a systemd-based workload to verify this.

systemd containers on OpenShift with cgroups v2 §

I observed that systemd-based workloads run successfully in OpenShift when executed as UID 0 on the host. Such containers can only be created by accounts granted privileged SCCs (e.g. anyuid). When running the container under other UIDs, systemd can’t run because it does not have write permission on the container’s cgroup directory.

Using runc to explore the OCI Runtime Specification §

I investigated how runc (the OCI runtime used in OpenShift) operates, and how it creates cgroups. I identified some potential ways to change the ownership of the container cgroup to the container’s UID 0.

systemd, cgroups and subuid ranges §

I discovered that the systemd transient unit API (which runc uses to create container cgroups) allows specifying a different owner for the new cgroup. Unfortunately, the user must be “known”, in the form of a passwd entity via NSSwitch. A proposal to relax this requirement was provisionally rejected. Other approaches include writing an NSSwitch module to synthesise passwd entities for subuids, or modifying runc to chown(2) the container cgroup after systemd creates it. I decided to experiment with the latter approach.

Modifying runc to chown the container cgroup §

The main challenge in modifying runc was getting my head around the unfamiliar codebase. The actual operations are straightforward. There are two main aspects.

The first aspect is to compute the appropriate owner UID for the cgroup, and tell it to the cgroup manager object. I described the algorithm in a previous post. The config.HostRootUID() method already implements this computation. I was able to reuse it.

The second aspect is to actually chown(2) the relevant cgroup files and directories. I previously observed systemd’s behaviour when creating units owned by arbitrary users. systemd chowns the container’s cgroup directory, and the cgroup.procs, cgroup.subtree_control and cgroup.threads files within that directory. runc will do the same. The cgroup manager object already knows the path to the container cgroup directory. It changes the owner of the directory and same three files as systemd to the relevant user.

Demo §

Following is a step-by-step demonstration starting with a fresh deployment of OpenShift 4.7.20.

% oc get clusterversion
version   4.7.20    True        False         8m52s   Cluster version is 4.7.20

There is a regression in OpenShift 4.8.0 that prevents Pod annotations from being propagated to container OCI configurations. As a consequence, runc does not receive the annotations that trigger the experimental behaviour. I filed a pull request that fixes the issue. The patch was accepted and the fix released in OpenShift 4.8.4.

The latent credential is the cluster admin user. Where relevant, I use the oc --as USER option to execute commands as other users.

% oc whoami

Install modified runc package §

List the nodes in the cluster:

% oc get node
NAME                                       STATUS   ROLES    AGE   VERSION
ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-master-0         Ready    master   61m   v1.20.0+01c9f3f
ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-master-1         Ready    master   61m   v1.20.0+01c9f3f
ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-master-2         Ready    master   61m   v1.20.0+01c9f3f
ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-worker-a-vrbnv   Ready    worker   52m   v1.20.0+01c9f3f
ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-worker-b-dxk6k   Ready    worker   52m   v1.20.0+01c9f3f
ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-worker-c-db89w   Ready    worker   52m   v1.20.0+01c9f3f

For each worker node, open a node debug shell and use rpm-ostree override replace to install the modified runc (one worker shown):

% oc debug node/ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-worker-a-vrbnv
Starting pod/ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-worker-a-vrbnv-debug ...
To use host binaries, run `chroot /host`
Pod IP:
If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter.
sh-4.2# chroot /host
sh-4.4# rpm-ostree override replace https://ftweedal.fedorapeople.org/runc-1.0.0-990.rhaos4.8.gitcd80260.el8.x86_64.rpm
Downloading 'https://ftweedal.fedorapeople.org/runc-1.0.0-990.rhaos4.8.gitcd80260.el8.x86_64.rpm'... done!
Checking out tree 9767154... done
No enabled rpm-md repositories.
Importing rpm-md... done
Resolving dependencies... done
Applying 1 override
Processing packages... done
Running pre scripts... done
Running post scripts... done
Running posttrans scripts... done
Writing rpmdb... done
Writing OSTree commit... done
Staging deployment... done
  runc 1.0.0-96.rhaos4.8.gitcd80260.el8 -> 1.0.0-990.rhaos4.8.gitcd80260.el8
Run "systemctl reboot" to start a reboot

Instead of installing the modified runc on all worker nodes, you could update one node and use .spec.nodeAffinity in the PodSpec to force the pod to run on that node.

Don’t worry about the restart right now (it will happen in the next step). Exit the debug shell:

sh-4.4# exit
sh-4.2# exit

Removing debug pod ...

Enable user namespaces and cgroups v2 §

The following MachineConfig enables cgroups v2 and CRI-O annotation-based user namespace support:

apiVersion: machineconfiguration.openshift.io/v1
kind: MachineConfig
    machineconfiguration.openshift.io/role: worker
  name: userns-cgv2
    - systemd.unified_cgroup_hierarchy=1
    - cgroup_no_v1="all"
    - psi=1
      version: 3.1.0
      - path: /etc/crio/crio.conf.d/99-crio-userns.conf
        overwrite: true
          source: data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,W2NyaW8ucnVudGltZS5ydW50aW1lcy5ydW5jXQphbGxvd2VkX2Fubm90YXRpb25zPVsiaW8ua3ViZXJuZXRlcy5jcmktby51c2VybnMtbW9kZSJdCg==
      - path: /etc/subuid
        overwrite: true
          source: data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,Y29yZToxMDAwMDA6NjU1MzYKY29udGFpbmVyczoyMDAwMDA6MjY4NDM1NDU2Cg==
      - path: /etc/subgid
        overwrite: true
          source: data:text/plain;charset=utf-8;base64,Y29yZToxMDAwMDA6NjU1MzYKY29udGFpbmVyczoyMDAwMDA6MjY4NDM1NDU2Cg==

The file /etc/crio/crio.conf.d/99-crio-userns.conf enables CRI-O’s annotation-based user namespace support. Its content (base64-encoded in the MachineConfig) is:


The MachineConfig also overrides /etc/subuid and /etc/subgid, defining sub-id ranges for user namespaces. The content is the same for both files:


Create the MachineConfig:

% oc create -f machineconfig-userns-cgv2.yaml
machineconfig.machineconfiguration.openshift.io/userns-cgv2 created

Wait for the Machine Config Operator to apply the changes and reboot the worker nodes:

% oc wait mcp/worker --for condition=updated --timeout=-1s
machineconfigpool.machineconfiguration.openshift.io/worker condition met

It will take several minutes, as worker nodes get rebooted one a time.

Create project and user §

Create a new project called test:

% oc new-project test
Now using project "test" on server "https://api.ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1.origin-ci-int-gce.dev.openshift.com:6443".

You can add applications to this project with the 'new-app' command. For example, try:

    oc new-app ruby~https://github.com/sclorg/ruby-ex.git

to build a new example application in Python. Or use kubectl to deploy a simple Kubernetes application:

    kubectl create deployment hello-node --image=gcr.io/hello-minikube-zero-install/hello-node

The output shows the public domain name of this cluster: ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1.origin-ci-int-gce.dev.openshift.com. We need to know this for creating the route in the next step.

Create a user called test. Grant it admin role on project test, and the anyuid Security Context Constraint (SCC) privilege:

% oc create user test
user.user.openshift.io/test created
% oc adm policy add-role-to-user admin test
clusterrole.rbac.authorization.k8s.io/admin added: "test"
% oc adm policy add-scc-to-user anyuid test
securitycontextconstraints.security.openshift.io/anyuid added to: ["test"]

Create service and route §

Create a service to provide HTTP access to pods matching the app: nginx selector:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
  name: nginx
    app: nginx
    - protocol: TCP
      port: 80
% oc create -f service-nginx.yaml
service/nginx created

The following route definition will provide HTTP ingress from outside the cluster:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Route
  name: nginx
  host: nginx.apps.ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1.origin-ci-int-gce.dev.openshift.com
    kind: Service
    name: nginx

Note the host field. Its value is nginx.apps.$CLUSTER_DOMAIN. Change it to the proper value for your cluster, then create the route:

% oc create -f route-nginx.yaml
route.route.openshift.io/nginx created

There is no pod to route the traffic to… yet.

Create pod §

The pod specification is:

apiVersion: v1
kind: Pod
  name: nginx
    app: nginx
    io.kubernetes.cri-o.userns-mode: "auto:size=65536"
    - name: "net.ipv4.ping_group_range"
      value: "0 65535"
  - name: nginx
    image: quay.io/ftweedal/test-nginx:latest
    tty: true

Create the pod:

% oc --as test create -f pod-nginx.yaml
pod/nginx created

After a few seconds, the pod is running:

% oc get -o json pod/nginx | jq .status.phase

Tail the pod’s log. Observe the final lines of systemd boot output and the login prompt:

% oc logs --tail 10 pod/nginx
[  OK  ] Started The nginx HTTP and reverse proxy server.
[  OK  ] Reached target Multi-User System.
[  OK  ] Reached target Graphical Interface.
         Starting Update UTMP about System Runlevel Changes...
[  OK  ] Finished Update UTMP about System Runlevel Changes.

Fedora 33 (Container Image)
Kernel 4.18.0-305.3.1.el8_4.x86_64 on an x86_64 (console)

nginx login: %

Without tty: true in the Container spec, the pod won’t produce any output and oc logs won’t have anything to show.

The log tail also shows that systemd started the nginx service. We already set up a route in the previous step. Use curl to issue an HTTP request and verify that the service is running properly:

% curl --head \
HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Server: nginx/1.18.0
Date: Wed, 21 Jul 2021 06:55:38 GMT
Content-Type: text/html
Content-Length: 5564
Last-Modified: Mon, 27 Jul 2020 22:20:49 GMT
ETag: "5f1f5341-15bc"
Accept-Ranges: bytes
Set-Cookie: 6cf5f3bc2fa4d24f45018c591d3617c3=f114e839b2eef9cdbe00856f18a06336; path=/; HttpOnly
Cache-control: private

Verify sandbox §

Now let’s verify that the container is indeed running in a user namespace. Container UIDs must map to unprivileged UIDs on the host. Query the worker node on which the pod is running, and its CRI-O container ID:

% oc get -o json pod/nginx | jq \
    '.spec.nodeName, .status.containerStatuses[0].containerID'

Start a debug shell on the node and query the PID of the container init process:

% oc debug node/ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-worker-c-db89w
Starting pod/ci-ln-jqbnbfk-f76d1-gnkkv-worker-c-db89w-debug ...
To use host binaries, run `chroot /host`
Pod IP:
If you don't see a command prompt, try pressing enter.
sh-4.2# chroot /host
sh-4.4# crictl inspect bf2b3d | jq .info.pid

Query the UID map and process tree of the container:

sh-4.4# cat /proc/7759/uid_map
         0     200000      65536
sh-4.4# pgrep --ns 7759 | xargs ps -o user,pid,cmd --sort pid
USER         PID CMD
200000      7759 /sbin/init
200000      7796 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-journald
200193      7803 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-resolved
200000      7806 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-homed
200000      7807 /usr/lib/systemd/systemd-logind
200081      7809 /usr/bin/dbus-broker-launch --scope system --audit
200000      7812 /sbin/agetty -o -p -- \u --noclear --keep-baud console 115200,38400,9600 xterm
200081      7813 dbus-broker --log 4 --controller 9 --machine-id 2f2fcc4033c5428996568ca34219c72a --max-bytes 5
200000      7815 nginx: master process /usr/sbin/nginx
200999      7816 nginx: worker process
200999      7817 nginx: worker process
200999      7818 nginx: worker process
200999      7819 nginx: worker process

This confirms that the container has a user namespace. The container’s UID range is 065535, which maps to the host UID range 200000265535. The ps output shows various services running under systemd, running under unprivileged host UIDs in this range.

So, everything is running as expected. One last thing: let’s look at the cgroup ownership. Query the container’s cgroupsPath:

sh-4.4# crictl inspect bf2b3d | jq .info.runtimeSpec.linux.cgroupsPath

The value isn’t a filesystem path. runc interprets it relative to an implementation-defined location. We expect the cgroup directory and the three files mentioned earlier to be owned by the user that maps to UID 0 in the container’s user namespace. In my case, that’s 200000. We also expect to see scopes and slices created by systemd in the container to be owned by the same user.

sh-4.4# ls -ali /sys/fs/cgroup\
/crio-bf2b3d15cbd6944366e29927988ba30bc36d1efee00c28fb4c6d5b2036e462b0.scope \
    | grep 200000
14755 drwxr-xr-x.  5 200000 root   0 Jul 21 06:00 .
14757 -rw-r--r--.  1 200000 root   0 Jul 21 06:00 cgroup.procs
14760 -rw-r--r--.  1 200000 root   0 Jul 21 06:00 cgroup.subtree_control
14758 -rw-r--r--.  1 200000 root   0 Jul 21 06:00 cgroup.threads
14806 drwxr-xr-x.  2 200000 200000 0 Jul 21 06:00 init.scope
14835 drwxr-xr-x. 11 200000 200000 0 Jul 21 06:15 system.slice
14922 drwxr-xr-x.  2 200000 200000 0 Jul 21 06:00 user.slice

Note the inode of the container cgroup directory: 14755. We can query the inode and ownership of /sys/fs/cgroup within the pod:

% oc exec pod/nginx -- ls -ldi /sys/fs/cgroup
14755 drwxr-xr-x. 5 root nobody 0 Jul 21 06:00 /sys/fs/cgroup

The inode is the same; this is indeed the same cgroup. But within the container’s user namespace, the owner appears as root.

This concludes the verification steps. With my modified version of runc, systemd-based workloads are indeed working properly in user namespaces.

Next steps §

I submitted a pull request with these changes. It remains to be seen if the general approach will be accepted, but initial feedback is positive. Some implementation changes are needed. I might have to hide the behaviour behind a feature gate (e.g. to be activated via an annotation). I also need to write tests and documentation.

I also need to raise a ticket for the SCC issue. The requirement for RunAsAny (which is granted by the anyuid SCC) should be relaxed when the sandbox has a user namespace. The SCC enforcement machinery needs to be enhanced to understand user namespaces, so that unprivileged OpenShift user accounts can run workloads in them.

It would be nice to find a way to avoid the sysctl override to allow the container user to use ping. This is a much lower priority.

Alongside these matters, I can begin testing the FreeIPA container in the test environment. Although systemd is now working, I need to see if the FreeIPA’s constituent services will run properly. I anticipate that I will need to tweak the Pod configuration somewhat. But are there more runtime capability gaps waiting to be discovered? I don’t have a particular suspicion about it, but I do need to know for certain, one way or the other. So expect another blog post soon!

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