Tags: hakyll, pandoc

Hakyll how-to: Fancy title formatting

Sometimes you need special formatting in an article title. I often use monospace (e.g. for a function name), but subscript, superscript or italics might be useful too. The standard Hakyll metadata block doesn’t offer a good way of doing this. But Hakyll is very flexible. In this post I’ll walk through my solution.

The standard approach §

Pandoc reads an optional YAML metadata block at the beginning of an input file. You specify the title there:

title: Fancy Hakyll title formatting
tags: hakyll, pandoc

Sometimes you need…

Hakyll propagates these metadata fields in the defaultContext, so that you can refer to $title$ in the article template(s):



Typically you also include $title$ in the HTML <title> element, in the “top-level” template:

<html xmlns="http://www.w3.org/1999/xhtml" xml:lang="en" lang="en">
    <title>pureblog - $title$</title>
    <link rel="stylesheet" type="text/css" href="/css/default.css" />


Limitations §

Say you want to use monospace for the “Hakyll” in the title. Trying with backticks…

title: Fancy `Hakyll` title formatting
tags: hakyll, pandoc

Sometimes you need…

The site builds, but you end up with:

    <title>pureblog - Fancy `Hakyll` title formatting</title>

<h1>Fancy `Hakyll` title formatting</h1>

Not what we want. The backticks were propagated verbatim, instead of resulting in a <code> element. Worse, when you have formatting at the beginning of the value…

title: *Fancy* Hakyll title formatting
tags: hakyll, pandoc

Sometimes you need…

Then the build fails with a YAML parse error:

ftweedal% cabal run site build
Up to date
  Creating store...
  Creating provider...
site: ./posts/2021-01-15-hakyll-title-formatting.md:
      YAML parse exception at line 2, column 13,
while scanning an alias:
did not find expected alphabetic or numeric character
  Running rules...

OK, what about using HTML tags in the metadata?

title: <em>Fancy</em> <code>Hakyll</code> title formatting
tags: hakyll, pandoc

Sometimes you need…

The site builds successfully, and the resulting HTML is:

    <title>pureblog - <em>Fancy</em> <code>Hakyll</code> title formatting</title>

<h1><em>Fancy</em> <code>Hakyll</code> title formatting</h1>

The <h1> header is formatted exactly how we want. But now there are literal HTML tags in the <title> (browsers do not recognise formatting here). So we need a “plain” variant of the title to put in the <title> element. We may also need to use the plain variant in Atom/RSS feeds, or other parts of the site.

Also, writing HTML is not nice. A big reason to use Hakyll and Pandoc is to write in a more fluent and human-friendly markup format. It is undesirable to have to revert to HTML.

Two titles? §

As demonstrated, two variants of the title are needed—one with (optional) formatting, and one without. Therefore we could write:

title: Fancy Hakyll title formatting
fancyTitle: <em>Fancy</em> <code>Hakyll</code> title formatting
tags: hakyll, pandoc

Sometimes you need…

And update relevant templates to use $fancyTitle$:



This approach works. But it is unsatisfying because not only are we writing HTML; we are also writing the same title twice! This fails the DRY (don’t repeat yourself) principle. Even when fancyTitle has formatting, the content is substantially similar. In fact, you could derive the plain variant from the other.

So that’s what I do.

Solution §

First, promote the title out of the metadata block and into the document itself, as a heading:

tags: hakyll, pandoc

# *Fancy* `Hakyll` title formatting

Sometimes you need…

You’ll need to update the the compilation rule to extract the first header from the document, compute values for $title$ and $fancyTitle$ and remember them. Define the extraction function:

firstHeader :: Pandoc -> Maybe [Inline]
firstHeader (Pandoc _ xs) = go xs
  go [] = Nothing
  go (Header _ _ ys : _) = Just ys
  go (_ : xs) = go xs

And define the “strip formatting” function. removeFormatting uses Text.Pandoc.Walk.query to yield, in order, only the “terminal” or “leaf” data from a [Inline]. query monoidally appends the values yielded by the inner function f.

removeFormatting :: [Inline] -> [Inline]
removeFormatting = query f
  f inl = case inl of
    Str s -> [Str s]
    Code _ s -> [Str s]
    Space -> [Space]
    SoftBreak -> [SoftBreak]
    LineBreak -> [LineBreak]
    Math _ s -> [Str s]
    RawInline _ s -> [Str s]
    _ -> []

Next, update the Hakyll compilation rule to extract the header, process and render its content, and save snapshots of the values.

compile $ do
  -- BEGIN title processing
  pandoc <- readPandoc =<< getResourceBody
    h1 = maybe [Str "no title"] id . firstHeader <$> pandoc
    render f =
      writePandoc . fmap (Pandoc mempty . pure . Plain . f)
    title = render removeFormatting h1
    fancyTitle = render id h1
  saveSnapshot "title" title
  saveSnapshot "fancyTitle" fancyTitle
  -- END title processing

    >>= loadAndApplyTemplate "templates/post.html" ctx
    >>= loadAndApplyTemplate "templates/default.html" ctx
    >>= relativizeUrls

The final code change is to update ctx to retrieve values for $title$ and $fancyTitle$ from the snapshots:

ctx :: Context String
ctx =
  dateField "date" "%Y-%m-%d"
  <> snapshotField "title" "title"
  <> snapshotField "fancyTitle" "fancyTitle"
  <> defaultContext

snapshotField :: String -> Snapshot -> Context String
snapshotField key snap = field key $ \item ->
  loadSnapshotBody (itemIdentifier item) snap

Finally, update relevant templates. The post template (templates/post.html) does not refer to $title$ or $fancyTitle$; the title is now part of the document $body$:


Other templates (e.g. the archive page, templates/archive.html) can use the $fancyTitle$:

Here you can find all my previous posts.

      $date$ - <a href="$url$">$fancyTitle$</a>

Results §

The resulting HTML has the plain $title$ value in the <title> element. The formatted title appears as an <h1> element in the article $body$.

    <title>pureblog - Fancy Hakyll title formatting</title>

<h1 id="fancy-hakyll-title-formatting"><em>Fancy</em>
  <code>Hakyll</code> title formatting.</h1>

The archive page uses $fancyTitle$, with the rich formatting, as the link (<a>) text for each post:

    2021-01-15 -
    <a href="./posts/2021-01-15-hakyll-title-formatting.html"><em>Fancy</em>
    <code>Hakyll</code> title formatting</a>

Performance (what not to do) §

It is critical for performance to extract and process the header during compilation, saving snapshots of the computed values. I found this out the hard way. In a previous iteration of my solution, during compilation I only saved a snapshot of the input source:

compile $ do
  getResourceBody >>= saveSnapshot "source"
  pandocCompiler >>=

The behaviour to load the source from the snapshot, parse it and extract the title was part of the Context:

headerField :: String -> ([Inline] -> [Inline]) -> Context String
headerField key f = field key $ \item -> do
  doc <- readPandoc =<< loadSnapshot (itemIdentifier item) "source"
  pure . itemBody . writePandoc
    $ Pandoc mempty . pure . Plain . f
      . maybe [Str "no title"] id . firstHeader
    <$> doc

ctx :: Context String
ctx =
  dateField "date" "%Y-%m-%d"
  <> headerField "title" removeFormatting
  <> headerField "fancyTitle" id
  <> defaultContext

With this implementation the build duration for my work blog (68 posts at the time) was around 34 seconds. Certainly long enough to irritate me. When I investigated, I discovered that Hakyll executes the process in headerField—load snapshot, parse with Pandoc, extract title—every time it encountered $title$ or $fancyTitle$ in a template. That was 683 times, or over 10 times per post!

That seemed like an huge number to me, so I worked the numbers. Each post page has its <title>, and also a list of 5 recent articles. Each article appears in the main archive list, and also the list for each of its tags (I guess an average of 3 tags per article). And there are 5 recent articles on the home page.

λ> import Data.Monoid (Sum(..))
λ> titles = id
λ> recent = (*5)
λ> archive = id
λ> tags = (*3)
λ> index = const 5
λ> mconcat [titles, recent, archive, tags, index] $ Sum 68
Sum {getSum = 685}

The estimate (685) was very close to the actual value (683). Although this is the worst case scenario, even the best case scenario—when nothing has changed at all—still caused 192 parses and took significant time (about 9 seconds). This seems to be caused by tags pages always being recompiled. I’m not sure why that happens, but when the titles are cached it’s fast enough to not be an issue (<0.5 seconds).

The big takeaway from all this is: do as little processing as possible in Context field definitions. In my case, doing the title processing in compile and caching the results in dedicated snapshots (saveSnapshot) reduced site build time from 34 seconds to 9 seconds!

Final words §

Pandoc and Hakyll continue to be awesome and powerful tools. Any time I’ve wished to do something a little differently, or enhance my site, I’ve always found a way (up to HTML and CSS, anyway).

I did confirm that my solution results in 1 additional parse of each article source (2 parses in total). Using pandocCompilerWithTransformM I might be able to do the title processing in a callback, so that each article source gets parsed exactly once. This would further reduce the build time. I left this as a future improvement (and an exercise for the reader).

Earlier I did omit one important detail for the sake of clarity. The “recent posts” list accompanying each article requires an additional Rules set, creating a "recent" version of each article Item that can be referenced in the “main” article.

match "posts/*" $ version "recent" $ do

It is in this Rules set that I extract and snapshot the titles. Accordingly, in snapshotField I have to explicitly (and unconditionally) request the snapshot from the "recent" version of the current Item.

snapshotField :: String -> Snapshot -> Context String
snapshotField key snap = field key $ \item ->
    ident = itemIdentifier item
    ident' = setVersion (Just "recent") ident
    loadSnapshotBody ident' snap
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